Efficient, flexible, feasible, and defensible assessment of educator efforts to oversee the activities of the classroom and conduct daily instructional activities. 

General Information


Classroom Management

Use of evidence-based classroom management practices has emerged as one prominent behavioral mechanism influencing the effectiveness of universal, Tier I services and supports (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008). The importance of effective classroom management is based in the understanding that teaching academic and behavioral expectations, reinforcing expectations, anticipating and pre-correcting problem behavior before it happens, correcting inappropriate behavior respectfully, and establishing positive relationships are fundamental to promoting studentsuccess (Mitchell, Hirn, & Lewis, 2017; Myers et al., 2011). Effective classroom management is linked to higher levels of student engagement and social competence (La Paro, Pianta, & Stuhlman, 2004; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008), more time engaged in academic tasks, and increased levels of academic achievement (Brophy, 1988). Generally, well-managed classrooms are distinguished by educators’ ability to monitor student attention and performance, establish behavioral expectations, and consistently implement rules and procedures that prevent problems from occurring (Reinke et al., 2014; Simonsen et al., 2008). In contrast, poorly managed classrooms are associated with higher levels of disruptive student behavior and lower levels of student on-task behavior and performance (Reinke et al., 2008).


DBR-CM Development

Despite increased scholarly attention on classroom management, classroom management assessment, and consultation-based professional development activities, the availability of feasible, flexible and defensible classroom management assessments remains limited (Reddy, Fabiano, & Jimerson, 2013). Given the reported deficits in pre- and in-service professional development in conjunction with a growing emphasis on prevention within a tiered service delivery approach, coaches, consultants, and trainers are increasingly being called upon to support improvement in educator classroom management practice. Use of performance feedback and coaching incorporating screening and formative assessment data imbedded within a collaborative consultation framework attempt to shift professional development goals away from awareness-raising to behavior change (Mitchell et al., 2017; Reinke et al., 2008; Simonsen et al., 2017). The DBR-CM was developed to address the limited availability of feasible classroom management assessments. 



The Direct Behavior Rating-Classroom Management (DBR-CM) was developed to serve as afeasible, defensible, and flexible assessment of classroom management. Specifically, the goal of DBR-CM development was to provide those individuals charged with identifying and supporting educator professional development needs (e.g., trainers, peer mentors, consultants, collaborators, and administrators) a feasible, defensible, flexible, efficient, repeatable, and usable screening and formative assessment of educator classroom management behavior. The DBR-CM seeks to provide screening and progress monitoring data indicative of educator use of evidence-based classroom management practices. The DBR-CM extends relies on the solid evidence base supporting the use of the direct behavior rating assessment methodology to assess behavior in educational settings (DBR; Chafouleas, 2011). The DBR assessment methodology is easily recognizable in daily behavior report cards, check in/check out, home-school notes, and good behavior notes (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sassu, 2006).  

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